The Apostle Peter moved to Rome later in his life. He probably lived in the Trans Tiberim quarter, on the west side of the Tiber River, where many Jews lived. A community of Jews existed there since at least the 1st century BC. Many of them ended up in Rome after being taken as slaves following the conquest of Jerusalem by Pompey in 63 BC.
The First Letter
Peter probably lived near Mark. According to ancient church sources, it was during this time in Rome that Mark wrote his Gospel account, with Peter as his source. It was also here that Peter wrote his letters.
Peter wrote his first letter to the Christians who had been dispersed throughout the world and were under intense persecution. If anyone understood persecution, it was Peter. He was beaten, punished, and jailed for preaching the Gospel. He knew what it took to endure without bitterness and without losing hope. Peter’s direct knowledge of the living hope found in Jesus was his ultimate message:Praise be to the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ! In his great mercy he has given us new birth into a living hope through the resurrection of Jesus Christ from the dead. (1 Peter 1:3)
This period of history was filled with severe attacks against Christians. Yet Peter always found time to rejoice. He even said to count it a privilege to suffer for the sake of Jesus, since Jesus suffered for them. In the end, Peter confirms that Satan is the ultimate enemy of every Christian, but he assures every Christian that their ultimate hope is in the future return of Jesus Christ.
Peter’s second letter
Peter wrote his second letter near the end of his life here in Rome. He was alarmed to hear that false teachers were infiltrating the churches around the Mediterranean region. He called on Christians to grow-up and become strong in their faith so that they could detect and combat the spreading lies. He stressed the authenticity of the scriptures and the sure return of Jesus Christ.
The Lord is not slow in keeping His promise, as some understand slowness. He is patient with you, not wanting anyone to perish, but everyone to come to repentance. (2 Peter 3:9)